It is also not a secret that the stoics engaged in. In popular parlance, epicureanism means devotion to pleasure, comfort, and high living. Russo department of philosophy molloy college show me a man who though sick is happy, though in danger is happy, though dying is happy, though condemned to exile is happy, though in disrepute is happy. The original reaction was the heartening experience of christianity in discovering an extensive harmony and coincidence between its own ethics and the teachings of the philosopher seneca, especially in his moral epistles. Epicurean vs stoics epicurean vs stoic moral theories the. Buddhist mindfulness by mary braun dealing with ones own anger resources and insights from epictetus by greg sadler. Dec 30, 2016 the basics of stoic ethics a center for ethics and entrepreneurship lecture gregory b. While paul was in athens, a group of stoics met him and engaged him in a debate acts 17. The stoic logic including epistemology and physics are a prelude to their ethical theory. Kant does not make attainment of good they key notion in his ethics, as herman and guyer in quite different ways think he does. Epicureans and stoics represent two branches of philosophy that.
Stoic ethics posted on 15 january 2012 peter considers two of the stoics most challenging ideas, a determinism that leaves room for moral responsibility, and the ideal of an ethically perfect sage. These may have been the books of zeno, and more likely some of those by chrysippus. Stoicism by branch doctrine the basics of philosophy. Stoic ethics posted on 15 january 2012 peter considers two of the stoics most challenging ideas, a determinism that leaves room for moral responsibility, and. The stoics are one of five major philosophical schools in classical greece and rome. What are the main differences between epicureanism and. Epicureanism advocates a minimum happiness, but a philosophy of the will. Stoic warriors explores the relationship between soldiers and stoic philosophy, exploring what stoicism actually is, the role it plays in the character of the military both ancient and modern, and its powerful value as a philosophy of life.
Epicurean empiricism prefigured that of locke, berkeley, and hume. The differences between epicureanism and stoicism, on the existentialist level i am using this term to refer to the human condition was rather simple. Pdf among the philosophers whom paul is reported as meeting in. Stoicism had not personal immortalitythe divine spark in each of us would be absorbed back into the whole. The hostile reaction can however only be understood in terms of the history in the twentieth century of study of this period. Epicureanism philosophy flashcards and study sets quizlet. They accepted the physics of democritus that the universe was composed entirely of empty space filled with atoms of differing shapes and weights that what are the main. What is the difference between an epicurean and a hedonist. For my part, i want to point out that joy, pleasure, and the like are overarching categories.
Stoicism, particularly in its ethical and political aspects a defense of individual selfmastery on the one hand and commercial society on the other for the latter, see, e. The basics of stoic ethics a center for ethics and. Epicurus seems to recommend the absence of pain as a pleasure more sought than pleasure itself. During the roman period it took on something like the character of a mass religious movement. Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based on the teachings of epicurus, founded around 307 b. According to epicurus an ethical person is someone who understands the attainment of good things and the course of the bad things. What are the main differences between epicureanism and stoicism. Epicureanism argued that pleasure was the chief good in life. Popularity, however, is where the similarity between the two ends.
Epicureans difference between stoics and epicureans. The idea of happiness for epicurean is friends, freedom and an analyzed life. Virtue is the keystone of stoic philosophy and the basis of their ethics. Marshalling anecdotes from military historyranging from ancient greek wars to world war ii, vietnam, and iraqsherman illuminates.
Stoicism and epicureanism were the two main hellenistic schools of philosophy i. They accepted the physics of democritus that the universe was composed entirely of empty space filled with atoms of differing shapes and weights that what are the main differences between epicureanism and stoicism. Thus, conscience in stoicism was not nearly as developed as it was in christianity. Essay on epicurean vs stoic moral theory 474 words. Stoic moral theories the epicurean and the stoics has a very different moral theories then each other. Emphasis was placed on pleasures of the mind rather than on physical pleasures. In the passage below from the book letters from a stoic, seneca, a stoic who appreciated the philosophy of epicureanism, noted the main difference between his stoic school and the school of epicurus. The universe is the result of random combinations of atoms into four elements, and elements into existing matter. The difference here between the epicurean and our own school is this. In fact, it even came close to anticipating the idealism of. Stoicism is a philosophy of personal ethics informed by its system of logic and its views on the natural world. Will end in conflagration or dispersal of atoms stoic vs epicurean 6. From the conquests of alexander the great, greece started began its greatest cultural expansion in history. Epicureanism by branch doctrine the basics of philosophy.
In the course of the lecture, we discuss some of the ideas central to stoic ethics, including. If so, how is it defined, is it attainable, and how. Cynicism and stoicism are ethical philosophies based on distinguishing between those things in your control from those things not in your control. Stoicism is one of many ancient greek philosophies. Pdf the stoic and the epicurean philosophy on the good life. Stoics n marcus aurelius louisiana tech university. Check out this article on stoic ethics if you want a taste. Platonist, aristotelian, stoic, epicurean, and skeptic. And the first reflection which this leads to is that ethics have as genuine and real a foothold in a universe where the highest consciousness is human, as in a universe where there is a god as well. The ethics of the hellenistic era, above all epicurean and stoic ethics, are the first examples in history of fundamentally universalistic ethics. Phil 125 epicurus vs stoics free will stoicism scribd. Epicureanism and stoicism study guide by cassw14 includes 46 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more.
Epicureanism was not a philosophy of heroes like stoicism was. Stoicism, an ancient greek stoicism and christianity. According to its teachings, as social beings, the path to eudaimonia happiness, or blessedness for humans is found in accepting the moment as it presents. He introduces readers to the fundamental ways in which happiness is created within the two philosophical perspectives, by juxtaposing the schools of thought to highlight criticisms and commonality between the two. It teaches that the greatest good is to seek modest pleasures in order to attain a state of tranquillity, freedom from fear ataraxia and absence from bodily pain aponia. Pleasure is the freedom of the body from pain and the soul from confusionnot a. Epicurean vs stoics epicurean vs stoic moral theories. Oct 26, 2018 an epicurean is a hedonist but a hedonist is not necessarily an epicurean, and the popular conception of hedonism certainly does not accurately describe epicureanism nor does the popular conception of epicureanism.
Centers ethics on duty, not consequences y unperturbed by failure. The ultimate concern of the stoics, as with the epicureans, was the question of how life ought to be lived. Full text of the stoics, epicureans, and sceptics see other formats. The stoic and the epicurean philosophies thoughtco. Both sought to be selfsufficient and unaffected by externals. Finally, their most outlandish of all is the claim that virtue was a material body. Epicureanismstoicism epicurus was a great philosopher that founded the epicurean belief.
The epicurean sage, or one who has attained the ideal which epicureanism sets forth, is one who, given that his basic needs are met shelter, food, etc. Stoic, epicurean and indeed sceptic ideas have come to form an important part of our own cultural backgroundoften misunderstood or altered, but then which thoughts of earlier generations are immune. The hellenistic age was a time of transition, and the stoic philosopher was perhaps its most influential representative. Logic deals with ones objective judgment at a specific moment in time. As a student of philosophy i am interested to know more about the idea of stoic and epicurean understanding of happiness. Seneca says that the difference between his school and epicurus school is that their wise man feels his troubles, and then overcomes them, while the epicurean does not even feel his troubles. Historically, stoicism was absorbed into epicureanism. It is a practical philosophy which holds that the basic rule of good life is that one should not yield to the passions greed, joy, fear and sorrow, but submit to god.
We share with them the belief that the wise man is content with himself. Apr 06, 2011 the stoics certainly were not adverse to making apparently outlandish claims. Difference between stoics and epicureans stoics vs. The universe will end when one element earth, air, fire, water totally dominates. Phil 125 epicurus vs stoics free download as word doc. In virtue ethics aristotle argues, virtue is a mean state between the extremes, both of which are. Choose from 32 different sets of epicureanism philosophy flashcards on quizlet. Oct 31, 20 as you can see, epicureanism disagreed with christianity on an awful lot. Stoicism and, to some extent, epicureanism are striking examples of what we now call cognitive theories of emotion, which stress the role of belief and intention in shaping emotional reactions. In his book stoics, epicureans and skeptics, classicist r. Epicureanism, in a strict sense, the philosophy taught by epicurus 341270 bce. All the ideal, knowledge and greek values were made known in other regions and cultures totally different. Epicureanism was a greek philosophy started by epicurus 341270 bc.
It was still going strong in new testament times when paul visited athens on his second missionary journey. Epicureanisms relationship to other traditions homeancient texts beliefs relationships. Stoic, epicurean and indeed sceptic ideas have come to form an important part of our own cultural backgroundoften misunderstood or altered, but then which thoughts of earlier generations are immune to that. Logics, ethics, and metaphysics are also key principles in stoicism. Because of the moral theories, the epicurean live in their own society where they limit their desires. The first, this publication, is a slightly edited version of two. Bibliography section d stoics, epicureans the hellenistic ethics d. Neostoicism is a syncretic movement, combining a revival of stoicism with christianity, founded by the belgian humanist justus lipsius 1547 1606. In a broad sense, it is a system of ethics embracing every conception or form of life that can be traced to the principles of his philosophy. Both epicurus and the stoic philosophers argued in their ethics for following a. Aristippus, like epicurus, advocated the view that pleasure is.
By exhibiting selfcontrol, the stoic follower lives according to the virtues of wisdom, bravery, justice, and moderation. An epicurean and stoic perspective a guest submission by wendy kosek. The philosophers who followed aristotle 384322 bce were also known as the peripatetics, named for their habit of walking around the colonnades of the athenian lyceum. In contradiction to the stoic perspective, sharples notes aristotles argument that virtue alone will not create the happiest possible life, and is achieved only through the combination of virtue and external goods. The stoic and epicurean understanding of happiness philosophy.
This is one view cyclical conflagrations and recreations. The epicurean selects the situations, the persons, and even the events which suit his extremely sensitive, intellectual constitution. Scholars believe epictetus possessed rare copies of early greek stoic texts, which he read to students and was discussing with them in the surviving discourses. For the early stoic philosopher, as for all the postaristotelian schools, knowledge and its pursuit are no longer held to be ends in themselves. The image of the stoic is the unfeeling, emotionless brute and the epicurean as the pleasureloving, selfindulgent hedonist. Heres an interesting passage on stoicism vs epicureanism. A stoic on music and ethics linda helen woodward ucl submitted for the degree of master of philosophy in classics. No, its conclusions are familiar for another reasonthey sound like those of modern secular culture. Epicureanism is a philosophy which stresses the importance of training ones desires.
The tremendous influence stoicism has exerted on ethical thought from early christianity through immanuel kant and into the twentieth century is rarely understood and even more rarely appreciated. It is no secret, i guess, that a few years ago i adopted stoicism as my chosen philosophy of life. Stoic and epicurean thoughts on poetry are outlined briefly in chapter 6. Stereotypes always fall short, but in this case, the common understanding of what it means to be a follower of the stoics or epicureanism has dealt two vibrant philosophies a grave injustice. A brief overview to the stoic philosophy of natural law olivera z. Some commentators try to assimilate kants ethics to views like those of aristotle or the stoics, which are less strongly deontological and antiteleological than kants are conventionally taken to be.
Most people see stoicism and christianity as polar opposites, but the belief systems do overlap in several ways. Philosophy 143 lecture notes the ethics of epicurus early greek ethics the ancient greek philosophers from around the time of socrates were deeply concerned with the question of what constitutes the good life for the human being socrates himself held that the good life is the virtuous life, and that virtues are forms of practical wisdom. Both views stress emotional detachment from the world and emphasize the development of independent character. Stoicism is a school of hellenistic philosophy which was founded by zeno of citium, in athens, in the early 3rd century bc.
Ethics inaugurates its occasional paper series, and we are genuinely proud. In ancient greece, epicurean philosophy and the philosophy of stoicism were popular movements. These philosophers followed the teachings of epicurus, 341270 b. A brief overview to the stoic philosophy of natural law. Epicurean moral theories were to avoid all pain that can bring suffering to the human beings. What are the main differences between epicureanism. There are many differences moral conception of man, ontology, metaphysics, between epicureanism and stoicism, two of the most known philosophy schools. While more differences than similarities exist between the two, we shouldnt let that preclude us from considering what both schools of thought offer as answers to that perennial question. Epicurean philosophy generally involved a minimalist approach to the acquisition of material things. Similarly cleanthes prayer, cited by epictetus, manual 53ls 62b. The epicureans the epicureans were materialists in the modern, scientific sense.
Epicureanism and stoicism, the two dominant philosophies of the. When examining the role of stoic ethics within stoic philosophy as a whole, it is useful for us to look at the stoic view of the way in which philosophy is made up of parts. Which lifestyle, epicurean or stoic, achieves the greatest amount of happiness. Who cares whether some bit of wisdom is from a stoic or an epicurean, who. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Moreover, both the stoics and the epicureans tried to answer that question by appealing to humans as natural beings. The name stoa derives from the name colorful room stoa polikle, located in athens, in which the stoic school had its center where lectures were conducted.
The stoic philosophers, on the other hand, were named for the athenian stoa poikile. Hence, epicurus advocated living in such a way as to derive the greatest amount of pleasure possible during ones lifetime, yet doing so moderately in order to avoid the suffering incurred by overindulgence in such pleasure. While differing in their fundamental tenets, both philosophical schools recognized the goal of philosophy to be the transformation of. He says that it is our in capacity to see what makes us happy and we look for happiness in the wrong places. Heres a quote from seneca though a stoic, i believe this applies to cynicism as well.
What is the difference between epicureanism and stoicism. True religion is contemplation of all things with a peaceful mind. A stoic on music and ethics i, linda helen woodward, confirm that the work presented in this thesis is my own. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. This feature has sometimes been seen as a ground of criticism of the theories, especially of the stoic version, both in antiquity and in some modern discussions.
Stoic a comparison chart with citations to sources in the ancient texts see also a comparison chart on the goal of life issue epicurean philosophy stoicism 1 does truth exist. Stoics, by not responding at least externally and emotionally to the consequences of fate, either pleasurable or painful. To the stoic, the purpose of life is to live according to nature. Metaphysics deals with willingly coming to terms with epicureanism vs.95 187 372 354 1498 131 377 213 1576 1537 1162 811 281 1079 1387 575 1551 848 282 1247 72 1458 353 204 58 1232 1145 371 1252 346 506 1049 1014 743 1448 115 1103 734 384 1059 1154 570 375